Chen K, Forrest A, Gonzalez Burgos G, Kozai TDY. Neuronal functional connectivity is impaired in a layer dependent manner near chronically implanted intracortical microelectrodes in C57BL6 wildtype mice. Journal of Neural Engineering [LINK]

Suemtasu N, Vazquez AL, Kozai TDY*. Activation and depression of neural and hemodynamic responses induced by the intracortical microstimulation and visual stimulation in the mouse visual cortex. Journal of Neural Engineering. [LINK]

McNamara IN, Wellman SM, Li L, Eles JR, Savya S, Sohal HS, Angle MR, Kozai TDY*. Electrode sharpness and insertion speed reduce tissue damage near high-density penetrating arrays. Journal of Neural Engineering. [LINK]


Chen K, Garcia C, Kiselyov K, Kozai DTY. Cell-specific alterations in autophagy-lysosomal activity near the chronically implanted microelectrodes. Biomaterials. 2023. 302, 122316. [LINK]

Wellman SM, Coyne OA, Douglas MM, Kozai TDY. Aberrant accumulation of age- and disease-associated factors following neural probe implantation in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2023. 20, 046044. [LINK]

Chen K, Cambi F, Kozai TDY. Pro-myelinating Clemastine administration improves recording performance of chronically implanted microelectrodes and nearby neuronal health. Biomaterials. 2023. 301, 122210. [LINK]

Hughes CL, Kozai TDY. Dynamic amplitude modulation of microstimulation evokes biomimetic onset and offset transients and reduces depression of evoked calcium responses in sensory cortices. Brain Stimulation. 2023. 16 (3), 939-965. [LINK]


Savya SP, Li F, Lam S, Wellman SM, Stieger KC, Chen K, Eles JR, Kozai TDY. In vivo spatiotemporal dynamics of astrocyte reactivity following neural electrode implantation. Biomaterials. 2022.  [LINK]

Stieger KC, Eles JR, Ludwig KA, Kozai TDY. Intracortical microstimulation pulse waveform and frequency recruits distinct spatiotemporal patterns of cortical neuron and neuropil activation. Journal of Neural Engineering. [LINK]


Chen K, Stieger KC, Kozai TDY. Challenges and opportunities of advanced glimodulation technologies for excitation-inhibition blance of brain networks. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2021. 72. 112-120. [LINK]

Fitz N, Nam KN, Wolfe C, Letronne F, Playso B, Iordanova B, Kozai TDY, Biedrzycki, Tyurina Y, Han X, Lefterov I, Koldamova R. Phospholipid Composition of APOE Lipoproteins Affects Microglia Activation in an Isoform-specific Manner. Nature Communications. 2021. 12(1), 1-18.  [LINK]

Dubaniewicz M^, Eles JR^, Lam S, Song S, Cambi F, Sun D, Wellman SM*, Kozai TDY*. Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger modulates microglial activation and scar formation following microelectrode implantation. Journal of Neural Engineering (Accepted). [LINK]

Chen K, Wellman SM, Yaxiaer Y, Eles JR, Kozai TDY. In vivo spatiotemporal patterns of oligodendrocyte and myelin damage at the neural electrode interface. Biomaterials. 2021. 268, 120526  [LINK]

Sahasrabuddhe K, Khan A, Singh A, Stern T, Ng Y, Tadić A, Orel P, LaReau C, Pouzzner D, Nishimura K, Boergens K, Shivakumar S, Hopper M, Kerr B, Hanna ME, Edgington R, McNamara I, Fell D, Gao P, Babaie-Fishani A, Veijalainen S, Klekachev A, Stuckey A, Luyssaert B, Kozai TDY, Xie C, Gilja V, Dierickx B, Kong Y, Straka M, Sohal H, Angle M. The Argo: A high channel count recording system for neural recording in vivo. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2021. 18, 015002. [LINK]

Eles JR, Stieger KC, Kozai TDY. The temporal pattern of intracortical microstimulation pulses elicit distinct temporal and spatial recruitment of cortical neuropil and neurons. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2021. 18(1). 015001. [LINK]

Trevanthan JK, Asp AJ,  Nicolai E, Trevanthan J, Kremer NA, Kozai TDY, Cheng D, Schachter M, Nassi JJ, Otte SL, Parker JG, Lujan JL, Ludwig KA. Calcium imaging in freely-moving mice during electrical stimulation of deep brain structures. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2021, 18(2). 026008.  [LINK]


Bettinger CJ, Ecker M, Kozai TDY, Malliaras GG, Meng E, Voit W. Recent advances in neural interfaces - Materials chemistry to clinical translation. MRS Bulletin. 2020, 45(8), 655-668. [LINK]

Stieger KC, Eles JR, Ludwig KA, Kozai TDY. In vivo microstimulation with cathodic and anodic asymmetric waveforms modulates spatio-temporal calcium dynamics in cortical neuropil and pyramidal neurons of male mice. J Neuroscience Research. 2020. 98(10), 2072-2095. [LINK]

Chan K, Lam S, Kozai TDY. What directions of improvements in electrode designs should we expect in the next 5-10 years? Bioelectronics in Medicine. 2020. 2(3), 119-122. [LINK]

Yang Q, Wu B, Eles JR, Vazquez AL, Kozai TDY, Cui XT. Zwitterionic polymer coating suppresses microglial encapsulation to neural implants in vitro and in vivo. Advanced Biosystems. 2020. 1900287.  [LINK]

Wellman SW, Guzman K, Steiger KC, Brink LE, Sridhar S,Dubaniewicz MT, Li L, Cambi F, Kozai TDY.  Cuprizone-induced oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination impairs recording performance of chronically implanted neural interfaces. Biomaterials. 2020. 239, 119842.  [LINK]

Eles JR, Kozai TDY. In vivo imaging of calcium and glutamate responses to intracortical microstimulation reveals distinct temporal responses of the neuropil and somatic compartments in layer II/III neurons. Biomaterials. 2020. 234, 119767. [LINK]


Ereifej ES, Shell C, Schofield JS, Charkhkar H, Cuberovic I, Dorval AC, Graczyk EL, Kozai TDY, Otto KJ, Tyler DJ, Welle CG, Widge AS, Zariffa J, Moritz C, Bourbeau D, Marasco P. Neural engineering: the process, applications, and its role in the future of medicine. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2019. 16(6), 063002. [LINK]

Kozai TDY, Purcell EK. Pipette-integrated microelectrodes. Nature BME. 2019. 3. 682-3. [LINK]

Wellman SM, Li L, Yaxiaer Y, McNamara IN, Kozai TDY. Revealing spatial and temporal patterns of cell death, glial proliferation, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction around implanted intracortical neural interfaces. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2019. 13, 493. [LINK]

Eles JR, Vazquez AL, Kozai TDY, Cui XT.  Meningeal inflammatory response and fibrous tissue remodeling around intracortical implants: an in vivo two-photon imaging study. Biomaterials. 2019. 195, 111-123. [LINK]

Stocking KC, Vazquez AL, Kozai TDY. Intracortical neural stimulation with untethered, ultrasmall carbon fiber electrodes mediated by the photoelectric effect. IEEE TBME. 2019. 66, 2402-2412. [LINK]

Michelson NJ, Eles JR, Vazquez AL, Ludwig KA, Kozai TDY. Calcium activation of cortical neurons by continuous electrical stimulation: Frequency-dependence, temporal fidelity and activation density. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 2019. 97(5), 620-638. [LINK]

Baranov SV, Baranova OV, Yabloska S, Suofu Yalikun, Vazquez AL, Kozai TDY, Cui XT, Ferrando LM, Larkin TM, Tyurina YY, Kagan VE, Carlisle DL, Kristal BS, Friedlander RM. Mitochondria modulate programmed neuritic retraction.  PNAS. 2019.116 (2), 650-659. [LINK]


Nicolai EN, Michelson NJ, Settell ML, Hara SA, Trevathan JK, Asp AJ, Stocking KC, Lujan JL, Kozai TDY*, Ludwig KA*. Design Choices for Next-Generation Neurotechnology Can Impact Motion Artifact in Electrophysiological and Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry Measurements. Micromachines. 2018. 9(10). 494. [LINK]

Kozai TDY. The History and Horizons of Microscale Neural Interface. Micromachines. 2018. 9(9). 445. [LINK]

Wellman SW, Cambi F, Kozai TDY. The role of oligodendrocytes and their progenitors on neural interface technology: A novel perspective on tissue regeneration and repair. Biomaterials. 2018. 183. 200-217. [LINK]

Michelson NJ, Kozai TDY. Isoflurane and Ketamine Differentially Influence Spontaneous and Evoked Laminar Electrophysiology in Mouse V1. J Neurophysiology. 2018. 5, 2232-2245. [LINK]

Golabchi A, Wu B, Li X, Carlisle DL, Kozai TDY, Friedlander RM, Cui XT. Melatonin Improves Quality and Longevity of Chronic Neural Recording. Biomaterials. 2018. 180. 225-239. [LINK]

Eles JR, Vazquez AL, Kozai TDY, Cui XT. In vivo imaging of neuronal calcium during electrode implantation: spatial and temporal mapping of damage and recovery. Biomaterials. 2018. 174, 79-94. [LINK]

Michelson NJ, Vazquez AL, Eles JR, Salatino JW, Purcell EK, Williams JJ, Cui XT, Kozai TDY. Multi-scale, multi-modal analysis uncovers complex relationship at the brain tissue-implant neural interface: New Emphasis on the Biological Interface. J Neural Engineering. 2018. 15, 033001. [LINK]

Wellman SM, Eles JR, Ludwig KA, Seymour J, Michelson NJ, McFadden WE, Vazquez AL, Kozai TDY. A Materials Roadmap to functional Neural Interface Design. Advanced Functional Materials. 2018, 28(12) 1701269. [LINK

Special Issue: "Advanced Functional Materials Solutions to Engineering the Neural Interface"

Wellman SM, Kozai TDY. In vivo spatiotemporal dynamics of NG2 glia activity caused by neural electrode implantation. Biomaterials. 2018. 164, 121-133 [LINK]

Cody PA, Eles JR, Lagenaur CF, Kozai TDY, Cui XT. Unique electrophysiological and impedance signatures between encapsulation types: An analysis of biological Utah array failure and benefit of a biomimetic coating in a rat model. Biomaterials. 2018. 161, 117-128. [LINK]

Iordanova BE, Vazquez AL, Kozai TDY, Fukuda M, Kim SG. Optogenetic investigation of the variable neurovascular coupling along the interhemisphere circuit. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2018. 38(4), 627-640.  [LINK]


Wellman SM, Kozai TDY. Understanding the inflammatory tissue reaction to brain implants to improve neurochemical sensing performance. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 2017. 8 (12),  2578–2582. [LINK

Salatino JW, Ludwig KA, Kozai TDY, Purcell EK. Glial responses to implanted electrodes in the brain. 2017 Nature Biomedical Engineering. 2017. 1. 862-877. [LINK]* [Read only Link] [1st Anniversary Editor's pick #2]

Du Z, Kolarcik CL, Kozai TDY, Luebben SD, Sapp SA, Zheng XS, Nabity JA, Cui XT. Ultrasoft microwire neural electrodes improve chronic tissue integration. Acta Biomaterialia. 2017. 53, 46-58.  [LINK]

Eles JR, Vazquez AL, Snyder NR, Lagenaur C, Murphy MC, Kozai TDY*, Cui XT*. Neuroadhesive L1 coating attenuates acute microglial attachment to neural electrodes as revealed by live two-photon microscopy. Biomaterials. 2017. 113. 279-292.  [LINK]


Khilwani R, Gilgunn PJ, Kozai TDY, Ong XC, Korkmaz E, Gunalan P, Cui XT, Fedder GK, Ozdoganlar OB. Ultra-Miniature Ultra-Compliant Neural Probes with Dissolvable Delivery Needles: Design, Fabrication and Characterization. Biomedical Microdevices. 18(6), 97. [LINK]

Patel PR, Zhang H, Robbins M, Nofar J, Marshal S, Kobylarek M, Kozai TDY, Kotov NA, Chestek C. Chronic in vivo stability assessment of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays J Neural Eng. 2016. 13(6). 066022. [LINK]

Kozai TDY, Jaquins-Gerst AS, Vazquez AL, Michael AC, Cui XT. Dexamethasone retrodialysis attenuates microglial response to implanted probes in vivo. Biomaterials. 2016. 87, 157-169 [LINK]

Kozai TDY, Eles JR, Vazquez AL, Cui XT. Two-photon imaging of chronically implanted neural electrodes: Sealant methods and new insights. J Neurosci Meth. 2016. 258, 46-55 [LINK]

Kozai TDY, Catt K, Du Z, Na K, Srivannavit O, Haque RM, Seymour J, Wise KD, Yoon E, Cui XT. Chronic in vivo evaluation of PEDOT/CNT for stable neural recordings. IEEE TBME. 2016. 63(1), 111-119 (DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2015.2445713) [LINK


Alba NA, Du Z, Catt, K, Kozai TDY, Cui XT. In vivo electrochemical analysis of a PEDOT/MWCNT neural electrode. Biosensors. 2015,5(4),618-646. [LINK]

Kolarcik CL, Luebben SD, Sapp SA, Hanner J, Snyder N, Kozai TDY, Chang E, Nabity JA, Nabity ST, Lagenaur CF, Cui XT. Elastomeric and soft conducting microwires for implantable neural interfaces. Soft Matter. 2015. 11, 4847-4861. [LINK]

Patel PR, Na K, Zhang H, Kozai TDY, Kotov NA, Yoon E, Chestek CA. Insertion and development of linear 8.6μm diameter channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings. J Neural Eng. 2015. 12 (4), 046009. [LINK]

Kozai TDY, Vazquez AL. Photoelectric artefact from optogenetics and imaging on microelectrodes and bioelectronics: New Challenges and Opportunities. J Materials Chemistry B. 2015. 3. 4965 – 4978. [LINK] (Cover)

Kozai TDY, Jaquins-Gerstl A, Vazquez AL, Michael AC, Cui XT. Brain Tissue Responses to Neural Implants Impact Signal Sensitivity and Intervention Strategies. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 2015. 6(1). 48-67. [LINK] (Cover) [ACS Chemical Neuroscience: Most Cited Paper from 2015]

Kozai TDY, Du Z, Gugel ZV, Smith MA, Chase SM, Bodily LM, Caparosa EM, Friedlander RM, Cui XT. Comprehensive Chronic Laminar Single-Unit, Multi-Unit, and Local Field Potential Recording Performance with Planar Single Shank Electrode Arrays. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2015. 242. 15-40. [LINK]

Kozai TDY, Catt K, Li X, Gugel ZV, Olafsson VT, Vazquez AL, Cui XT. Mechanical failure modes of chronically implanted planar silicon-based neural probes for laminar recording. Biomaterials. 2015. 37. 25-39. [LINK]

Kolarcik CL, Catt K, Rost E, Albrecht I, Bourbeau D, Du Z, Kozai TDY, Luo X, Weber DJ, Cui XT. Evaluation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/carbon nanotube neural electrode coatings for stimulation in the dorsal root ganglion. J Neural Eng. 2015. 12. 016008. [LINK]


Kozai TDY, Li X, Bodily LM, Caparosa EM, Zenonos GA, Carlisle DL, Friedlander RM, Cui XT. Effects of caspase-1 knockout on chronic neural recording quality and longevity: Insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms of the reactive tissue response. Biomaterials. 2014. 35(36). 9620-9634. [LINK]

Kozai TDY, Gugel ZV, Li X, Gilgunn PJ, Khilwani R, Ozdoganlar OB, Fedder GK, Weber DJ, Cui XT. Chronic tissue response to carboxymethyl cellulose based dissolvable insertion needle for ultra-compliant, ultra-small neural probes. Biomaterials. 2014. 35(34). 9255-68. [LINK]

Kozai TDY, Alba NA, Zhang H, Kotov NA, Gaunt RA, Cui XT. “Nanostructured coatings for improved charge delivery to neurons” in “Nanotechnology and Neuroscience: nano-electronic, photonic, and mechanical neuronal interfacing” Springer. 2014. [LINK]


Kozai TDY, Langhals NB, Patel PR, Deng X, Zhang H, Lahann J, Kotov N, Kipke DR. Ultrasmall implantable composite microelectrodes with bioactive surfaces for chronic neural interfaces. Nature Materials. 2012 11(12), 1065-1073. [LINK] (ToC Image)

Kozai TDY, Vazquez AL, Weaver CL, Kim SG, Cui XT. In vivo two photon microscopy reveals immediate microglial reaction to implantation of microelectrode through extension of processes. J Neural Eng. 2012. 9. 066001. [LINK]

Gilgunn PJ, Khilwani R, Kozai TDY, Weber DJ, Cui XT, Erdos G, Ozdoganlar OB, Fedder GK. An ultra-compliant, scalable neural probe with molded biodissolvable delivery vehicle. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), IEEE 25th International Conference on 2012, 56-59. [LINK]


Kozai TDY, Marzullo TC, Langhals NB, Hooi FM, Majewska AK, Brown EB, Kipke DR. Reduction of neurovascular damage resulting from microelectrode insertion into cerebral cortex using in vivo two-photon mapping. Journal of Neural Engineering. J. Neural Eng. 2010. 7. 046011. [LINK]


Kozai TDY, Kipke DR; Insertion Shuttle with Carboxyl Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayer Coatings for Implanting Flexible Polymer Neural Probes in the Brain. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Nov 15, 2009. 184(2). 199-205. [LINK]

Escamilla–Mackert T, Langhals NB, Kozai TDY, Kipke DR. Insertion of a Three Dimensional Silicon Microelectrode Assembly through a Thick Meningeal Membrane. 31st Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference. September 3-6, 2009, Minneapolis, MN, USA. 1616-1618. [LINK

* or ^ denotes equal contribution.